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Achieving Better Service Delivery Through Decentralization in Ethiopia.

By: Garcia, Marito.
Contributor(s): Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2008Copyright date: ©2008Description: 124 pages 13 cm.Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780821373835.Subject(s): Decentralization in government -- Ethiopia | Electronic books. -- local | Public administration -- EthiopiaGenre/Form: Electronic books.Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Opening Credits -- Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- Executive Summary -- 1. Improvements in Health and Education Services -- Changes in Outcomes over the Past 15 Years -- Was Decentralization Responsible? -- 2. Decentralization and the Delivery of Basic Services -- Phasing in Decentralization -- A Framework for Understanding Service Delivery Outcomes -- 3. The Scope of Decentralization and Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers -- Subnational Structures -- Decentralization of Functions and Responsibilities -- Financing Social Services through Intergovernmental Transfers -- 4. How Did Decentralization to Woreda Level Affect the Delivery of Social Services? -- Increases in Woreda-Level Spending Following Decentralization -- Decentralization Appears to Have Improved the Distribution of Expenditures Across Woredas with Worse-off Woredas Benefiting the Most -- After Woreda-Level Decentralization Began, Some Evidence of Lagging Woredas Partly Catching Up in Social Service Delivery -- Teacher Redeployment Across Woredas and Within Woredas -- Regression Analysis: Linking Expenditures with Outcomes -- Decentralization's High Potential to Improve Service Delivery -- 5. Making Decentralization Work: Overcoming Constraints in Decentralized Service Delivery -- Critical Constraints -- Regional Innovations for Recruiting and Retaining Workers -- Empowering Citizens and Communities to Improve Services and Outcomes -- Improving Accountability Mechanisms -- Appendixes -- A Calculating Block Grants Allocations From Federal Government to Regions and Regions to Woredas Using the Three-Parameter Formula -- B The "Fiscal Equalization" and "Unit Cost" Approaches for Block Grant Allocations -- C Regression Results on Education Outcomes Before and After Decentralization.
D Estimating the Effects of Decentralization on the Delivery of Human Development Services in Ethiopia -- E Methodology and Technical Details for Data Analysis in Chapter 4 -- References -- List of Tables -- 1.1. Index of Real Government Expenditures and Spending as Percentage of GDP, 1999-2005 -- 1.2. User Satisfaction with Government Health Services, 2005 -- 1.3. User Satisfaction with School Services, 2005 -- 2.1. Trends in Service Delivery, 1995/96-2004/05 -- 3.1. Assignment of Expenditure and Revenue Responsibilities for Education, Health, and Water and Sanitation, by Tier of Government, circa 2005 -- 3.2. A Wide Variation in Per Capita Block Grant Transfers to Regions -- 3.3. Two Different Approaches for Allocating Federal Resources to Regions -- 3.4. Regional Budgets and Share of Budgets Transferred to Woredas in Four Regions, 2005/06 -- 3.5. Block Grant Allocations in Oromiya, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.6. Block Grant Allocations in SNNPR, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.7. Trends in Regional Expenditure, 1993/4-2005/06 -- 3.8. Aggregate Fiscal Performance -- 4.1. Woreda-Level Spending on Education and Health in SNNPR, by Category of Spending, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.2. Woreda-Level Per Capita Spending on Education and Health in Oromiya, by Category of Spending, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.3. Woreda-Level Spending on Education and Health in SNNPR, by Type of Woreda, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.4. Recurrent Expenditure Per Primary Student in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.5. Recurrent Expenditure Per Secondary Student in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.6. Education Outcomes in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.7. Primary Education Outcomes in Oromiya, 2001 and 2004 -- 5.1. Block Grant Transfers as a Proportion of Federal Revenues, 1996/97-2005/06 -- 5.2. Number of Regional and Woreda-Level Personnel in Oromiya Before and After Decentralization.
5.3. Staffing in Sector Offices in Delanta Dawnt Woreda, Amhara Region, 2003/04 -- 5.4. Staff Vacancies in Selected Woredas -- 5.5. Community Contributions to Education in Boset Woreda, Oromiya Region, 2004/05 -- 5.6. Community Contributions to Education in Boritcha Woreda, SNNPR, 2004/05 -- A1. Per Capita Block Grant Transfers and Population -- C1. School-Level Regressions Explaining Educational Outcomes Before and After Decentralization -- C2. Woreda-Level Regressions Explaining Educational Outcomes Before and After Decentralization -- D1. Effects of Changes in Expenditures on Educational Outcomes in the Primary Education Subsector: Results of Woreda-Level Regressions for SNNPR -- List of Figures -- 1.1. Primary Enrollment Increased Rapidly Beginning in the Mid-1990s -- 1.2. Increases in Primary School Enrollment Since 1995 Occurred Despite Only Modest Increases in Spending on Education as a Percentage of GDP -- 2.1. Decentralization has Devolved Responsibility to Subnational Levels of Government -- 2.2. Accountability for Providing Services Can Follow a Long Route or a Short Route -- 3.1. Federal Transfers to Regions Using Block Grants have been Rising but Not as Fast as Federal Discretionary Spending -- 3.2. A Very Close Inverse Relationship Between a Region's Population and its Per Capita Transfer from the Federal Government in 2005/06 -- 3.3. Following Decentralization, Transfers from Regional Governments to Woredas and Zones Increased, Except in SNNPR, Where They Were Already High -- 3.4. Regional Budgets With and Without Special Purpose Grants -- 3.5. Regional Revenue as a Share of General Government Revenue, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.6. Real Per Capita Government Spending on Education Rose After 2000, but Much of the Increase went to Tertiary Education.
3.7. Overall Real Per Capita Spending on Health Increased Between 2000/01 and 2004/05, but Real Per Capita Subnational Government Spending Declined -- 3.8. Woredas' Share of Regional Recurrent Budgets for Amhara, Oromiya, SNNPR, and Tigray (the Four Main Decentralizing Regions) Together -- 4.1. Expenditures of Woredas Increased After Decentralization -- 4.2. Recurrent Woreda-Level Spending Rose in All Sectors in SNNPR Following Decentralization -- 4.3. The Share of Total Recurrent Spending for Primary and Secondary Education in SNNPR Rose Following Decentralization -- 4.4. Gross Enrollment Rates have Improved in All Categories of Woredas in SNNPR Since Decentralization -- 4.5. Grade 8 Pass Rates in SNNPR Have Increased Since Decentralization, with Improvement in Pastoral Areas Greater than in Urban Areas -- 4.6. Repetition Rates have Fallen Sharply in Urban Areas and Pastoral Areas in SNNPR Since Decentralization -- 4.7. Teachers have been Redeployed from Urban to Non-Urban Woredas Since Decentralization -- 4.8. Teacher-Section Ratios Tended to Equalize Since Decentralization Began in SNNPR -- 4.9. The Gap in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Across Woredas has Narrowed Since Decentralization -- 4.10. No Reallocation of Teachers or Narrowing of Gaps in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Appears to Have Taken Place in Oromiya Since Decentralization -- 4.11. Differences in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Across Schools Within Woredas in SNNPR have Narrowed Since Decentralization -- 5.1. Per Capita Block Grants to the Regions Averaged just Birr 82 Per Capita in 2004/05 -- 5.2. Inadequate Financing Represents an Even Greater Constraint at the Woreda Level -- 5.3. Capital Spending by Subnational Governments as a Share of Total Spending has been Declining, Especially in the Social Sectors.
5.4. Since Decentralization to the Woredas, There has been an Acceleration in the Production of Physical Capital Stock Related to Education and Health Service Delivery -- 5.5. Nursing and Medical Students in Ethiopia Perceive that the Assignment of Posts is Subject to Manipulation -- 5.6. Community Contributions Represent a Much Larger Source of School Financing Than Incentive Awards -- 5.7. Enrollment by Girls Rose in BESO Schools -- 5.8. School Attendance is Higher in Woredas in which Primary Education Continues to Grade 8 -- List of Boxes -- 3.1. The "Unit Cost" Approach to Block Grant Allocation -- 3.2. Performance Agreements in SNNPR -- 3.3. Devolution of Power in Theory and in Practice -- 5.1. Improving the Legal Framework for Decentralization in Tigray -- 5.2. Improving Financial Management Reporting at the Woreda Level -- 5.3. Community Participation in Service Delivery at Work: Ethiopia's Basic Education Strategic Objective (BESO) -- 5.4. Boosting Girls' Participation in Primary Education Through Girls' Advisory Committees -- 5.5. Community Participation in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Health Education Schemes in Oromiya -- 5.6. Using Citizen Report Cards in Ethiopia.
Summary: Ethiopia has made major strides in improving its human development indicators in the past 15 years, achieving significant increases in the coverage of basic education and health services in a short period of time. Imrovements took place during a period of massive decentralization of fiscal resources, to the regions in 1994 and to woredas in 2002-03. The devolutionof power and resources from the federal and regional governments to woredas appears to have improved the delivery of basic services. Surveys of beneficiaries reveal that they perceive that service coverage and quality have improved. Beneficiary satisfaction has increased markedly in education, and less conspicuously in water and health services. In the south, the decentralization to woredas 2002-03 tended to narrow differences in per capita expenditures on education and health across woredas. Decentralization disproportionately favored woredas that are remote (more than 50 kilometers from a zonal capital), food-insecure, and pastoral, suggesting that decentralization has been ppro-poor. Decentralization also narrowed the gap in educational outcomes between disadvantaged and better-off woredas, especially in the south. Pastoral, food-insecure, and remote woredas gained in terms of the educational outcomes examined (gross enrollment rates, grade 8 examination pass rates, repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratios, and teacher-section ratios).
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Genel Koleksiyon JQ3759.5.D42 G373 2008 (Browse shelf) Available 0047985
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JQ1809.A8 .I23 2017 c.2 Siyasi partiler ve seçim hukuku / JQ1809 .D87 2018 Türkiye'nin Siyasal Hayatı / JQ3330 .A44 2010 Tunisia JQ3759.5.D42 G373 2008 Achieving Better Service Delivery Through Decentralization in Ethiopia. JQ3831 .B65 2011 SETA rapor Nisan 2011 : JS44 .L65 1978 Local government and information technology / JS66 .G43 2019 Geçmişin canlı tanığı Türk idare dergisi /

Opening Credits -- Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- Executive Summary -- 1. Improvements in Health and Education Services -- Changes in Outcomes over the Past 15 Years -- Was Decentralization Responsible? -- 2. Decentralization and the Delivery of Basic Services -- Phasing in Decentralization -- A Framework for Understanding Service Delivery Outcomes -- 3. The Scope of Decentralization and Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers -- Subnational Structures -- Decentralization of Functions and Responsibilities -- Financing Social Services through Intergovernmental Transfers -- 4. How Did Decentralization to Woreda Level Affect the Delivery of Social Services? -- Increases in Woreda-Level Spending Following Decentralization -- Decentralization Appears to Have Improved the Distribution of Expenditures Across Woredas with Worse-off Woredas Benefiting the Most -- After Woreda-Level Decentralization Began, Some Evidence of Lagging Woredas Partly Catching Up in Social Service Delivery -- Teacher Redeployment Across Woredas and Within Woredas -- Regression Analysis: Linking Expenditures with Outcomes -- Decentralization's High Potential to Improve Service Delivery -- 5. Making Decentralization Work: Overcoming Constraints in Decentralized Service Delivery -- Critical Constraints -- Regional Innovations for Recruiting and Retaining Workers -- Empowering Citizens and Communities to Improve Services and Outcomes -- Improving Accountability Mechanisms -- Appendixes -- A Calculating Block Grants Allocations From Federal Government to Regions and Regions to Woredas Using the Three-Parameter Formula -- B The "Fiscal Equalization" and "Unit Cost" Approaches for Block Grant Allocations -- C Regression Results on Education Outcomes Before and After Decentralization.

D Estimating the Effects of Decentralization on the Delivery of Human Development Services in Ethiopia -- E Methodology and Technical Details for Data Analysis in Chapter 4 -- References -- List of Tables -- 1.1. Index of Real Government Expenditures and Spending as Percentage of GDP, 1999-2005 -- 1.2. User Satisfaction with Government Health Services, 2005 -- 1.3. User Satisfaction with School Services, 2005 -- 2.1. Trends in Service Delivery, 1995/96-2004/05 -- 3.1. Assignment of Expenditure and Revenue Responsibilities for Education, Health, and Water and Sanitation, by Tier of Government, circa 2005 -- 3.2. A Wide Variation in Per Capita Block Grant Transfers to Regions -- 3.3. Two Different Approaches for Allocating Federal Resources to Regions -- 3.4. Regional Budgets and Share of Budgets Transferred to Woredas in Four Regions, 2005/06 -- 3.5. Block Grant Allocations in Oromiya, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.6. Block Grant Allocations in SNNPR, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.7. Trends in Regional Expenditure, 1993/4-2005/06 -- 3.8. Aggregate Fiscal Performance -- 4.1. Woreda-Level Spending on Education and Health in SNNPR, by Category of Spending, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.2. Woreda-Level Per Capita Spending on Education and Health in Oromiya, by Category of Spending, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.3. Woreda-Level Spending on Education and Health in SNNPR, by Type of Woreda, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.4. Recurrent Expenditure Per Primary Student in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.5. Recurrent Expenditure Per Secondary Student in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.6. Education Outcomes in SNNPR, 2001 and 2004 -- 4.7. Primary Education Outcomes in Oromiya, 2001 and 2004 -- 5.1. Block Grant Transfers as a Proportion of Federal Revenues, 1996/97-2005/06 -- 5.2. Number of Regional and Woreda-Level Personnel in Oromiya Before and After Decentralization.

5.3. Staffing in Sector Offices in Delanta Dawnt Woreda, Amhara Region, 2003/04 -- 5.4. Staff Vacancies in Selected Woredas -- 5.5. Community Contributions to Education in Boset Woreda, Oromiya Region, 2004/05 -- 5.6. Community Contributions to Education in Boritcha Woreda, SNNPR, 2004/05 -- A1. Per Capita Block Grant Transfers and Population -- C1. School-Level Regressions Explaining Educational Outcomes Before and After Decentralization -- C2. Woreda-Level Regressions Explaining Educational Outcomes Before and After Decentralization -- D1. Effects of Changes in Expenditures on Educational Outcomes in the Primary Education Subsector: Results of Woreda-Level Regressions for SNNPR -- List of Figures -- 1.1. Primary Enrollment Increased Rapidly Beginning in the Mid-1990s -- 1.2. Increases in Primary School Enrollment Since 1995 Occurred Despite Only Modest Increases in Spending on Education as a Percentage of GDP -- 2.1. Decentralization has Devolved Responsibility to Subnational Levels of Government -- 2.2. Accountability for Providing Services Can Follow a Long Route or a Short Route -- 3.1. Federal Transfers to Regions Using Block Grants have been Rising but Not as Fast as Federal Discretionary Spending -- 3.2. A Very Close Inverse Relationship Between a Region's Population and its Per Capita Transfer from the Federal Government in 2005/06 -- 3.3. Following Decentralization, Transfers from Regional Governments to Woredas and Zones Increased, Except in SNNPR, Where They Were Already High -- 3.4. Regional Budgets With and Without Special Purpose Grants -- 3.5. Regional Revenue as a Share of General Government Revenue, 2002/03-2004/05 -- 3.6. Real Per Capita Government Spending on Education Rose After 2000, but Much of the Increase went to Tertiary Education.

3.7. Overall Real Per Capita Spending on Health Increased Between 2000/01 and 2004/05, but Real Per Capita Subnational Government Spending Declined -- 3.8. Woredas' Share of Regional Recurrent Budgets for Amhara, Oromiya, SNNPR, and Tigray (the Four Main Decentralizing Regions) Together -- 4.1. Expenditures of Woredas Increased After Decentralization -- 4.2. Recurrent Woreda-Level Spending Rose in All Sectors in SNNPR Following Decentralization -- 4.3. The Share of Total Recurrent Spending for Primary and Secondary Education in SNNPR Rose Following Decentralization -- 4.4. Gross Enrollment Rates have Improved in All Categories of Woredas in SNNPR Since Decentralization -- 4.5. Grade 8 Pass Rates in SNNPR Have Increased Since Decentralization, with Improvement in Pastoral Areas Greater than in Urban Areas -- 4.6. Repetition Rates have Fallen Sharply in Urban Areas and Pastoral Areas in SNNPR Since Decentralization -- 4.7. Teachers have been Redeployed from Urban to Non-Urban Woredas Since Decentralization -- 4.8. Teacher-Section Ratios Tended to Equalize Since Decentralization Began in SNNPR -- 4.9. The Gap in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Across Woredas has Narrowed Since Decentralization -- 4.10. No Reallocation of Teachers or Narrowing of Gaps in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Appears to Have Taken Place in Oromiya Since Decentralization -- 4.11. Differences in Pupil-Teacher Ratios Across Schools Within Woredas in SNNPR have Narrowed Since Decentralization -- 5.1. Per Capita Block Grants to the Regions Averaged just Birr 82 Per Capita in 2004/05 -- 5.2. Inadequate Financing Represents an Even Greater Constraint at the Woreda Level -- 5.3. Capital Spending by Subnational Governments as a Share of Total Spending has been Declining, Especially in the Social Sectors.

5.4. Since Decentralization to the Woredas, There has been an Acceleration in the Production of Physical Capital Stock Related to Education and Health Service Delivery -- 5.5. Nursing and Medical Students in Ethiopia Perceive that the Assignment of Posts is Subject to Manipulation -- 5.6. Community Contributions Represent a Much Larger Source of School Financing Than Incentive Awards -- 5.7. Enrollment by Girls Rose in BESO Schools -- 5.8. School Attendance is Higher in Woredas in which Primary Education Continues to Grade 8 -- List of Boxes -- 3.1. The "Unit Cost" Approach to Block Grant Allocation -- 3.2. Performance Agreements in SNNPR -- 3.3. Devolution of Power in Theory and in Practice -- 5.1. Improving the Legal Framework for Decentralization in Tigray -- 5.2. Improving Financial Management Reporting at the Woreda Level -- 5.3. Community Participation in Service Delivery at Work: Ethiopia's Basic Education Strategic Objective (BESO) -- 5.4. Boosting Girls' Participation in Primary Education Through Girls' Advisory Committees -- 5.5. Community Participation in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Health Education Schemes in Oromiya -- 5.6. Using Citizen Report Cards in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia has made major strides in improving its human development indicators in the past 15 years, achieving significant increases in the coverage of basic education and health services in a short period of time. Imrovements took place during a period of massive decentralization of fiscal resources, to the regions in 1994 and to woredas in 2002-03. The devolutionof power and resources from the federal and regional governments to woredas appears to have improved the delivery of basic services. Surveys of beneficiaries reveal that they perceive that service coverage and quality have improved. Beneficiary satisfaction has increased markedly in education, and less conspicuously in water and health services. In the south, the decentralization to woredas 2002-03 tended to narrow differences in per capita expenditures on education and health across woredas. Decentralization disproportionately favored woredas that are remote (more than 50 kilometers from a zonal capital), food-insecure, and pastoral, suggesting that decentralization has been ppro-poor. Decentralization also narrowed the gap in educational outcomes between disadvantaged and better-off woredas, especially in the south. Pastoral, food-insecure, and remote woredas gained in terms of the educational outcomes examined (gross enrollment rates, grade 8 examination pass rates, repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratios, and teacher-section ratios).

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